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Interpretation

Signaling the strongest form of evidence, direct evidence, According to indicates that the CSE directly supports the SUS. Generally, there is no inferential step required between the authority cited and the assertion it supports. Used for direct evidence. The According to citation signal is the opposite of the Contra citation signal which is used for contradiction via direct evidence to the contrary.


Definitions

direct evidence

Evidence that directly proves a fact, without an inference or presumption, and which in itself, if true, conclusively establishes that fact.

Ref: West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2.

direct evidence n. real, tangible, or clear evidence of a fact, happening, or thing that requires no thinking or consideration to prove its existence, as compared to circumstantial evidence.

Ref: Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill

in·fer·ence (ĭnʹfәr-әns)

n.

1.
a. The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
b. The act of reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence.

Ref: The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language


Description

The According to signal, along with the Contra signal, cites the strongest form of evidence; that is, direct evidence. Use the According to signal when the cited authority directly states, shows, or demonstrates the proposition or assertion. According to is the opposite of the Contra signal. The authority need not state the proposition verbatim.

Common Uses

  • Citing a direct quote when someone is being paraphrased elsewhere.
  • Citing the exact language of a law, code, or rule that is being paraphrased elsewhere.
  • Citing an image, video, or audio proof to back-up a claim.
  • Citing a statement in a experiment, study, report, dissertation, etc., to back-up a claim.


Example

Given the following assertion,

SUS: "The HOA covenant will not allow Marge to paint her house in that awful pea-green color she wants."

and if the homeowner's association published pre-approved paint colors states,

CSE: According to "The only shade of green that is approved for the exterior is Forest Green (Duron #03973)"

then since the HOA is presumed to be legally chartered, and the cited quote is directly from said HOA, then there is no intervening assumptions necessary to concluded that the SUS is true and accurate. In other words, the CSE is straight from the "horse's mouth" and is the final word and there is no other evidence needed to support the claim (SUS). The CSE cites direct evidence and warrants the use of the According to signal.





Pages using the property "According to"

Showing 25 pages using this property.

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A

American intelligence authorities believe a surface-to-a +U.S. intelligence agencies have so far been unable to de  +
An amendment tagged on the National Defense Authorizatio +Such material may be made available within the United St(2)  +
An amendment that would legalize the use of propaganda o +Such material may be made available within the United St(2)  +
And a study in 2009 found that the human appendix might +Based (a) on a recently acquired understanding of immune  +

B

Brown died about 150 feet from the police vehicle +Mr. Brown's body was located approximately 153 feet east  +, 131 feet, 1 inch (distance between the fire hydrant and  +
Brown's body was found 153 feet away from the vehicle +131 feet, 1 inch (distance between the fire hydrant and  +, Mr. Brown's body was located approximately 153 feet east  +
Brown's body was located 153 feet away from Wilson's car +131 feet, 1 inch (distance between the fire hydrant and  +, Mr. Brown's body was located approximately 153 feet east  +
But he said that Russian radar had spotted a second airc +Ukrainian officials reported that on the day of the Boei  +
But on July 2, that came silently to an end with the imp +Such material may be made available within the United St(2)  +
But those flavanols largely disappear once the cocoa bea +Milk chocolate has most epicatechin processed out of it  +
But we know Brown died 150 feet away from the car +131 feet, 1 inch (distance between the fire hydrant and  +, Mr. Brown's body was located approximately 153 feet east  +
But we know Brown died 150 feet away from the car(2) +131 feet, 1 inch (distance between the fire hydrant and  +, Mr. Brown's body was located approximately 153 feet east  +

C

Can Ebola spread through sweat?..Yes, the virus can be p +The disease can be spread as easily as walking by somebo  +
Critical Technological Assessment in Israel and NATO Nat +CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN ISRAEL AND NATO NATION  +

D

Diligent environmental cleaning and disinfection and saf +People can be exposed to Ebola virus from direct physica  +, Massive amounts of viral antigens are seen in connective  +, Person to person transmission occurs by direct contact w  +

G

Guardian data being destroyed +On Saturday 20 July 2013, in the basement of the Guardia  +, Subject. RE. (U) RE. Guardian data being destroyed  +

H

He passed away 153 feet east of the officer's car +131 feet, 1 inch (distance between the fire hydrant and  +, Mr. Brown's body was located approximately 153 feet east  +

I

I did not have a negative experience with Donald Trump +I did not have a negative experience with Donald Trump(2)  +
In 2003, nearly one in five officers killed as part of a +Killed with own weapon .18  +
Iraq. ISIS Execution Site Located +صور مزلزلة من غزوة أسد الرحمن ا  +
Isis execution site revealed by satellite images +Iraq. ISIS Execution Site Located  +, صور مزلزلة من غزوة أسد الرحمن ا  +
Israel of possessing nuclear weapons +Israel has 80 nuclear warheads and the potential to doub  +, the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) concluded in 19  +, Based on plausible upper and lower bounds of the operati  +,
It may also be spread by direct contact with saliva, swe +People can be exposed to Ebola virus from direct physica  +
It produces and protects good germs for your gut +Based (a) on a recently acquired understanding of immune  +
It should be noted that the Israelis are developing the (2) +It should be noted that the Israelis are developing the  +
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